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Deciphering Tire Side Walls Cracked REPACK

In a related post that about DOT numbers on tires, we explained how to find tire sizes, load indexes, speed ratings, and age on a tire's sidewall. In this post, we'll break down the DOT tire identification number and what they mean.

Deciphering Tire Side Walls Cracked

By the way, some people erroneously refer to the DOT sidewall number as a tire's serial number. This would imply that each tire has its own unique code. Some manufacturers may choose to serially number their tires, but that is not the DOT number. The DOT number indicates the manufacturing date and location of a tire.

Vehicles typically have a shelf life of 5 to 6 years, but some can last up to 10 years. Tires older than that are subject to dry rot, which is when the sidewalls and treads of tires crack because the rubber dries out. Dry rot is dangerous and could cause your tires to blow.

When a vehicle is on the road, the tires go through a lot of wear and tear. Tires can easily get cracked due to the friction from the road, standing stationary for months and years, compression and expansion due to weather changes.

Whether you are a car lover or not, you need to take care of the dry rot tires and acknowledge when are cracks in the tire sidewall are unsafe. Here are the things that you should know to keep your tires safe.

It is essential to look for the signs for when are cracks in the tire sidewall are unsafe because if you can observe the occurrence of cracks in its initial stages, there can be repairs done. But, once they increase, there are no other options left than replacement of tires.

However, if the deeper cracks on the tire sidewall go unnoticed, they penetrate to the inner structure and can cause a complete blowout while you are speed driving, a risk that can be fatal and no one would want to take.

Everyday use of the vehicle calls for constant tire checks, which increases the possibility of observing the cracks at their initial stage. Regular tire detailing and repairs helps you counter the severe consequences of tire sidewall cracks.

But if you own a sports car and seldom drive it or there is a campervan in your garage for family trips that are used once or twice a year, you need to be concerned because cracks in tire sidewall can easily encapsulate the deeper layers if it has been sitting static for long.

The extension of the tread pattern onto the sidewall is a unique characteristic of off-road tires. So if you're looking around the tire sidewall information and sidewall tread is intimidatingly staring back at you, you're most likely looking at a legitimate off-road performer!

In addition to maintaining proper inflation pressure, regularly inspect the tire tread and sidewalls for irregular tread wear, cracking, scrapes, bulges, cuts, snags, foreign objects or other damage resulting from use. Remove any stones, glass, foreign objects, etc. embedded in the tread to prevent further damage. Even minor damage can lead to further injury and eventual tire failure. Tires with excessive cracking on the tread or sidewall(s) should be removed from service. This is typically caused by underinflation, over loading, improper storage, and/or improper long-term parking.

Consumers should check their tire tread and sidewall areas during monthly inflation pressure checks, looking for uneven or irregular tread wear or other conditions as noted above. It is recommended that tires, including the spare, be periodically inspected by a tire service professional during routine maintenance intervals such as oil changes and tire rotations.

BEAD FILLER - A rubber extrusion in the bead area of a tire; used to permit a smooth contour of casing plies around the bead and to the lower sidewall. Also used in enlarged form to stiffen the lower sidewall of a tire.

SERIES - This is the part of the size designation in tires, which gives the ratio of the height of a tire (from the rim to the top of the tread) to the width of the tire (from sidewall to sidewall). It is also referred to as the aspect ratio of a tire.

Every Hoosier race tire has a four character serial code embossed into ONE sidewall of the tire. All Hoosier DOT tires will also have two additional codes as required by the Department of Transportation. (Example: J7AB 4AX8 3710)

While the ETRTO designation is typically printed on or moulded into the sidewalls of most tyres, it is less common to find it on wheels and rims. As a result, a side-by-side comparison of any given tyre with a wheel/rim may not always be possible, which does a lot to undermine what the ETRTO nomenclature has to offer.

Like bead-seat diameters, these recommendations are not widely known, and there is no indication on the sidewalls that any specific tyre width must be matched to a specific range of rim widths. So for the user, it is difficult to knowingly abide by these suggestions, especially when these recommendations are at odds with those of some wheel manufacturers (For example, Zipp states that its latest carbon clincher rims that have an internal width of 19mm have been optimised for a 25mm tyre, while its 21mm rim beds are best suited to 28mm tyres).

While the ETRTO and ISO 5775 spell out minimum tyre pressures on the basis of size and intended use, the final recommendations that are printed or moulded onto the sidewalls of a tyre are determined by the manufacturer. Some recommendations take the form of a range, while others simply define a maximum .

A pinch-flat or a cut tyre remains the biggest risk when using low pressures, but there are other hazards, such as damage to the casing and/or an increase in wear. The former manifests as long cracks in the sidewalls (which are quite distinct from the short cracks caused by perishing), while excessive wear on the tread outside the centreline of the tyre is consistent with the latter. Users of tubeless tyres also face the added risk of burping (where air escapes from the tyre).

Especially on high-horsepower machinery like excavators or backhoes, underinflated tires are prone to radial or diagonal cracking in the upper sidewall area. These cracks, which follow the curve of the tire up by the shoulder of the tread or appear diagonally along the top of the sidewall, are caused when the tire deflects excessively as the engine applies torque to the tire. If you see this type of damage, call your tire dealer immediately to find out if the tire needs replacement.

Radial cracking in the upper sidewall due to underinflation.Sidewall separations, a perpendicular bubble running between the shoulder and the bead, can be caused on underinflated tires by impact (for instance, in a pothole) or pinching between the rim and curb. It is a dangerous condition and indicates that the plies of the carcass have been seriously damaged.

Cracks running perpendicular from the shoulders of the tread toward the bead can sometimes appear between lugs in underinflated tractor-type tires (like the Alliance 580) that get a lot of road miles. Those can be caused by overheating of the tires, which causes the sidewall compound to crack as deep bar lugs wiggle on the road.

Overinflated tires are more prone to impact breaks. A properly inflated tire that rolls over a rock, root, or other hard object is designed to bend around it and absorb the force of the contact. If the tire is stiff from overinflation, its ability to deform is reduced. Impact breaks appear as a blown-out section in the tread, or a bulge or blowout in the sidewall.

Another forced affliction on tyres can be over or under pressurising. Tyres lacking in pressure will create large amounts of heat due to an increase in friction from a larger contact patch with the tarmac, eventually leading to tyre wear. Over-pressurised tyres will inflict stress levels onto the metallic beading and tyre walls that the original tyre was not designed for and could potentially lead to dangerous bulges in the side walls and almost inevitably a blow-out down the line.

Even if a car is sat stationery or laid dormant on a driveway for years, sheer laziness, ignorance or the attack of nature on a tyre will cause them to degrade with tyre life-expectancy estimated to be around six to ten years from new. Companies like Bridgestone and Pirelli will advise you to change any tyre showing signs of degradation which include cracking in the tyre side walls and cracking within the tread itself, showing areas of weakness in a tyre which could potentially have up to 40 psi barely contained within.

Multi-piece wheel means a vehicle wheel consisting of two or more parts, one of which is a side or locking ring designed to hold the tire on the wheel by interlocking components when the tire is inflated.

Mounting and demounting of the tire shall be done only from the narrow ledge side of the wheel. Care shall be taken to avoid damaging the tire beads while mounting tires on wheels. Tires shall be mounted only on compatible wheels of matching bead diameter and width.

EXO, TCS Tough, Apex, Super Ground, Grid Trail \u2013 navigating the world of mountain bike tyre carcasses can be a minefield of acronyms and brand-specific designs, but understanding what\u2019s at the heart of a tyre can make a significant difference to your ride.\nIn fact, choosing the best mountain bike tyres for your bike, style and terrain can make or break your ride. You\u2019ll often hear us say tyres are one of the most important upgrades you can make to your mountain bike.\nWhile there\u2019s a lot to consider when eyeing up a fresh set of boots for a mountain bike, including compound, width and tread pattern, the carcass \u2013 also called the casing \u2013 is at the core of any bicycle tyre.\nSelecting the right tyre for your needs can seem like a confusing web of jargon and brand bluster \u2013 and, truth be told, even the most experienced riders can still become lost in the naming conventions and technical specifications of any range of tyres.\n\n The type of riding you do will dictate what type of tyre carcass you need. Ian Linton \/ Immediate Media\nBut fear not, BikeRadar is here to help.\nWhile every brand will have its own jargon, the same construction principles apply. Get to grips with the way tyre carcasses are constructed \u2013 and what that means for your ride \u2013 and you\u2019ll soon understand how to choose the best tyres for your riding.\nThere\u2019s a lot to cover here, so use the links below to skip to the section you need, or read on for every detail.\nDissecting a mountain bike tyre\nWhy does carcass construction matter?\nWhat types of tyre carcass are there?\nWhat carcass type do you need for your riding style?\nWhat else is there to consider?\nDissecting a mountain bike tyre\n\n The construction of a typical mountain bike tyre will look like this. Maxxis\nLet\u2019s start with an overview of how a typical mountain bike tyre is constructed, as well as the common terminology.\nA mountain bike tyre is made up of many layers, but most tyres from the majority of manufacturers are designed in a similar way. The above image from Maxxis shows a regular mountain bike tyre\u2019s construction with its composite parts:\nBead: A wire or rubber section that hooks onto the rim, keeping the tyre attached to the rim and creating an air-tight seal.\nCarcass (often referred to as the \u2018casing\u2019): This part is what this article is all about. A casing can be thick or thin with a low or high TPI (we\u2019ll come on to this). The casing can wrap around itself once or multiple times, and wraps around the tyre\u2019s bead.\nTread: Defining the type of terrain or riding style the tyre is most suited to, the tread pattern of different tyres can vary greatly, but its form isn\u2019t generally influenced by the casing.\nPuncture protection: A rubberised insert used within the tyre\u2019s construction to provide protection against tears or pinch flats. Increased puncture protection adds weight.\nSidewall: The rubberised exterior of the tyre that gives it shape. The sidewall is usually where some of the puncture protection portion is located (for example Maxxis\u2019 EXO or DoubleDown inserts).\nWhy does carcass type matter?\nA tyre\u2019s carcass can have a significant influence on how your bike rides, according to Aaron Chamberlain from Maxxis.\nA tyre with a thicker casing creates a \u201cmore damped ride, which is typically desirable\u2026 [when] you\u2019re smashing into rocks and roots at high speeds and subjecting the tyres to high cornering forces,\u201d he says.\nHeavy-duty models might be great for stability in turns and for damping vibrations and bumps, and can often be run at lower pressures, but they\u2019ll weigh more and create more rolling resistance (drag).\nOn the other hand, a thin, lightweight carcass can improve acceleration, deform around smaller, sharper bumps more readily and roll fast \u2013 but it might be more prone to punctures, or tear more easily, and sometimes require higher pressures.\n\n Tyre carcass construction can have an impact on how your bike rides. Andy Lloyd \/ Immediate Media\nAccording to Schwalbe\u2019s Tim Ward, lighter, thinner carcasses can also \u201creduce trail buzz and, in turn, rider fatigue, allowing the rider to put all their energy into [riding].\u201d\nTyre carcasses that sit between these two extremes are designed to balance the damping and stability of weighty tyres with the compliance and deformation of lighter ones.\nThis, according to Ward, \u201cenhances the rolling characteristics and trail feedback\u201d while offering \u201cincreased lateral support and stability in hard cornering.\u201d\nAlthough tyre carcasses aren\u2019t a silver-bullet solution for improving or changing the way your bike rides, they can have a significant effect, and choosing the right tyre for your needs is crucial.\nWith that in mind, let\u2019s get stuck into the different types of mountain bike tyre casing construction.\nWhat types of mountain bike tyre carcass are there?\n\n Confused by what all this means? We\u2019re here to help. Steve Behr \/ Immediate Media\nIn this article, we will focus on mountain bike-specific carcasses, where there are typically more options available from the major brands.\nGravel tyres, road bike tyres and general-use bicycle tyres use the same principles of construction, but have different objectives (eg, low cost or all-out rolling performance) and there are fewer carcass types to choose from.\n\n \nWhat is tyre carcass TPI?\nA mountain bike tyre carcass consists of layers, starting with and always including a rubberised threaded material that forms the basis of all tyres \u2013 each layer that makes up the construction of the carcass is referred to as a \u2018ply\u2019 in tyre jargon.\nA tyre\u2019s carcass material is made from threads of varying thickness and quantity, usually 60 or 120 threads per inch (TPI), that are coated with rubber.\nA lower TPI means thicker, stiffer, heavier threads, thus fewer per square inch. A higher TPI means thinner threads that will create a lighter, more flexible tyre with thinner sidewalls.\nThe thicker the threads, the more rubber is needed to fill the larger spaces between each one, as they can\u2019t be woven as tightly.\nAs a result, carcass construction can affect the weight, rolling resistance, damping, reliability and grip of a tyre.\nMany mountain bike tyres use a single-ply or dual-ply 60 TPI casing material to create a well-supported, resilient tyre; others might use only a single layer (or \u2018single ply\u2019) of 120 TPI material for lighter weight and increased flexibility, which helps reduce rolling resistance on rough ground.\nPuncture-resistant inserts or sidewall inserts aimed at providing extra support and stability may also be added as additional layers within a casing, but these vary from brand to brand.\n\n\n \n Selecting the right tyre carcass is often about the riding discipline.\nDownhill and cross-country riding, for example, place different demands on tyres: stable and sturdy for downhill bikes, light and fast-rolling for cross-country bikes.\nIt can also come down to the rider (heavier or more aggressive riders might favour stability over rolling resistance) and the terrain (an XC racer might not necessarily choose the lightest, fastest-rolling tyre if the terrain is rocky and likely to damage the tyre sidewall).\nGenerally speaking, there are four types of carcass construction, each outlined below.\nThe devil really is in the detail, though, as some tyre brands offer casings with the same name but in two different constructions (for example, 60 TPI and 120 TPI), which will have an impact on the tyre\u2019s performance and intended use.\nSingle-ply, high-TPI carcass\n\n The EXO casing from Maxxis is an example of a single-ply carcass designed for low weight and fast-rolling speed, with some protection against punctures. David Arthur \/ Immediate Media\nA 120 TPI single-ply tyre favours speed over durability.\nThe thinnest mountain bike tyre casings are built for XC-style riding and racing. The key objectives are low weight, fast acceleration and minimal rolling resistance, but they must also be able to cope with the varied terrain of modern XC courses without tearing or puncturing.\nTyres with a lightweight casing generally have a low-profile, fast-rolling tread pattern and are usually 2.4in and narrower in width.\nThe high thread count means less material overall, resulting in a lower overall tyre weight, which is vital for all-out acceleration, as we found when we tested the fastest tyre size for mountain biking.\nSingle-ply, low-TPI carcass\n\n The EXO+ casing from Maxxis combines a single-ply, medium-TPI casing with a puncture protection layer. Ian Linton \/ Immediate Media\nMost mountain bike tyres for everyday riding use a single-ply 60 TPI casing.\nThis will be slightly heavier than a high-TPI, single-ply tyre, but the thicker threads mean it should be stronger and sturdier without being overly heavy.\nThese characteristics make single-ply 60 TPI tyres common for everything from cross-country to trail, and downcountry to enduro.\nManufacturers often combine a single 60 TPI layer with a sidewall insert (Maxxis\u2019 EXO and EXO+ or Schwalbe\u2019s Apex, for example) for added structural support and resistance to sidewall cuts and pinch punctures. Companies also regularly include a puncture protection layer (or an optional one) in these single-ply tyres.\n\u201cThe majority of our TCS Light [single-ply] mountain tyres feature SG2 technology, which provides a protective nylon insert spanning from bead-to-bead, to provide extra puncture protection without the weight of a dual-ply casing,\u201d says James Heaton from WTB.\nDual-ply, high-TPI carcass\n\n Vittoria\u2019s Enduro is a dual-ply, high-TPI carcass. Alex Evans\nSome manufacturers offer dual-ply, 120 TPI tyres aimed mainly at aggressive trail riding or enduro racing.\nThe idea here is to provide support in the turns and against big hits, yet keep things fast and relatively lightweight (compared to a dual-ply, lower-TPI option).\nMaxxis\u2019 DoubleDown, Schwalbe\u2019s Super Gravity and Vittoria\u2019s Enduro casings are examples of dual-ply, high-TPI carcasses.\nDual-ply, low-TPI carcass\n\n DH casing tyres are tough and puncture-resistant. Steve Behr\nFor gravity-fed riding, including bike park laps and downhill racing, you need a really sturdy tyre that can withstand the massive forces of ripping around banked turns and hitting rock gardens flat-out.\nTyres in this category normally use a dual-ply, 60 TPI casing and sometimes include a sidewall insert for increased strength.\nThe heavy-duty construction and increased volume of rubber means these


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